Library

The Underwater Sculpture Park in Grenada, by artist Jason de Caires Taylor.
An underwater library of science needs a librarian. I’ll just update my resume here…

Educate yourself.

We quote a lot of science papers here. And we think that information should be available to all.

So here we will post and host scientific papers we have come across in the hopes that sharing knowledge will be a useful service to the public.

We will include all relevant science papers here, whether they agree with what we believe or not.

Science is about looking at all the available evidence, and that is part of our goal in maintaining this library.

Please pass on any suggestions for papers to be included in this list to our email address salmonfarmscience {AT} gmail.com.

Girl sleeping on books underwater


The library

Benthic impacts

Summary Author Paper Date
 Study of a Scottish salmon farm site found that the seafloor impacts were generally minimal, having some impact on suspension feeders but no impact on mobile creatures on the sea floor. No effects 100 m out from the farm site.  Thomas A. Wilding, Chris J. Cromey, Thom D. Nickell, David J. Hughes  Salmon farm impacts on muddy-sediment megabenthic assemblages on the west coast of Scotland  2012
 Analysis of a farm site which had higher than normal benthic impacts show that after fallowing it could take up to 15 years for site to return to “natural” level, much longer than other B.C. sites  Nicole Obee  Chemical and Biological Remediation of Marine Sediments at a Fallowed Salmon Farm, Centre Cove, Kyuquot Sound, B.C.  2009
 A review of human impacts on the benthic environment in the Strait of Georgia  B.J. Burd, P.A.G. Barnes, C.A. Wright, R.E. Thomson  A review of subtidal benthic habitats and invertebrate biota of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia  2008
 Net pen salmon farms have positive effects on marine ecosystem and increase biodiversity  J.E. Rensel and J.R.M. Forster  Beneficial Environmental Effects of Marine Finfish Mariculture  2007
 Facts and figures about copper antifoulant in a marine environment  National Paint and Coatings Association  Q&A on copper antifoulant coatings  2007
 Salmon farming uses less space, has less environmental impact on seafloor than other forms of protein production do on land (e.g. beef)  Kenneth M. Brooks  A comparison of some environmental costs associated with netpen culture of fish with some other forms of food production  2007
 Copper exposure can increase mortality for microorganisms, but algae can absorb copper  Zhi-Cai Xie, Nga Cheung Wong, Pei-Yuan Qian, Jian-Wen Qiu  Responses of polychaete Hydroides elegans life stages to copper stress  2005
 Generally, standards for salmon farms re: benthic impacts are good, and fallowed sites recover quickly.  Kenneth D. Black, Pia Kupka Hansen, Marianne Holmer  Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue Working Group Report on Benthic Impacts and Farm Siting  2005

Bycatch

Summary Author Paper Date
 Overview of bycatch taken in US fisheries, sorted by region. All data from 2005.  US Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration  The US National Bycatch Report  2011
 Overview of bycatch in the B.C. bottom trawl fishery  John Driscoll, Carrie Robb, Karin Bodtker  Bycatch in Canada’s Pacific Groundfish Bottom Trawl Fishery  2009
 Derelict fishing gear is a risk for several bird species of conservation concern  Thomas P. Good, Jeffrey A. June, Michael A. Etnier, Ginny Broadhurst  Ghosts of the Salish Sea: Threats to Marine Birds in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits from Derelict Fishing Gear  2009
 Bycatch of rockfish from spot prawn fisheries is low, but reduction is desirable  Brett Favaro, Dennis T. Rutherford, Stefanie D. Duff, Isabelle M. Cote  Bycatch of rockfish and other species in British Columbia’s spot prawn traps: Preliminary assessment using research traps  2009
 Overview of bycatch numbers, policies and areas for improvement in US fisheries  Jeffrey A. Moore, Bryan P. Wallace, Rebecca L. Lewison, Ramunas Zydelis, Tara M. Cox, Larry B. Crowder  A review of marine mammal, sea turtle and seabird bycatch in USA fisheries and the role of policy in shaping management  2008
 Overview of dolphin and porpoise bycatch in B.C. salmon gillnet fisheries  Rob Williams, Anna Hall, Arliss Winship  Potential limits to anthropogenic mortality of small cetaceans in coastal waters of British Columbia  2008
 Bycatch of birds in B.C. fisheries is a concern and conservation efforts are required.  Joanna L. Smith, Hen H. Morgan  An assessment of seabird bycatch in longline and net fisheries in British Columbia  2005
 Estimated 6,215 marine mammals and whales taken every year as bycatch in US fisheries; bycatch likely to have significant effects on population demographics  Andrew J. Read, Phebe Drinker, Simon Northridge  Bycatch of marine mammals in U.S. and global fisheries  2005
 Overview of the bycatch taken in Canadian fisheries and the problem with underreporting  Candace Picco, Jennifer Ford, Susanna Fuller, Dorthea Hangaard, Chih-Fan Tsao, Lance Morgan, Ratana Chuenpagdee  Mind the gap: What we don’t know about bycatch in Canadian fisheries  2005

Disease

Summary Author Paper Date
 Farm-by-farm level data submitted to provincial government by industry, which was used by provincial government to write annual audit reports 2003-2010  BC Salmon Farmers Association  BC Salmon Farmers Association fish health database 2002-2010  2011
 Audits of fish health on B.C. salmon farms  Centre for Aquatic Health Sciences  Fish health audits done on B.C. farmed salmon by the Centre for Aquatic Health Sciences from 2010-2011  2011
 A genomic signature observed in Fraser River sockeye was correlated with a greater chance of the fish dying when they swim out to sea, and a greater chance of dying on their return before reaching their spawning grounds.  Kristina M. Miller, Shaorong Li, Karia H. Kaukinen, Norma Ginther, Edd Hammill,Janelle M. R. Curtis, David A. Patterson, Thomas Sierocinski, Louise Donnison, Paul Pavlidis, Scott G. Hinch, Kimberly A. Hruska, Steven J. Cooke, Karl K. English, Anthony P. Farrell  Genomic signatures predict migration and spawning failure in wild Canadian salmon  2011
 Annual reports about the state of fish health in B.C. salmon farms  B.C. Ministry of Agriculture  Annual fish health reports for B.C. salmon farming industry 2003-2010  2010
 Comparison of antibiotic use in terrestrial farming and their levels in the soil  Kwon-Rae Kim, Gary Owens, Soon-Ik Kwon, Kyu-Ho So, Deog-Bae Lee, Yong Sik Ok  Occurrence and environmental fate of veterinary antibiotics in the terrestrial environment  2010
 Graph showing antibiotic use in B.C. aquaculture from 1995-2008  B.C. Ministry of Agriculture  Antibiotic Use in BC Salmon Aquaculture 1995-2008  2008
 Evidence shows it is possible that the ISA outbreak in Chile was caused by ISA virus brought to Chile from Norway in salmon eggs.  Siri Vike, Stian Nylund, Are Nylund  ISA virus in Chile: evidence of vertical transmission  2008
 Although aquaculture may have effects on wild fish populations, modern industrial aquaculture probably represents a major improvement in controlling fish disease, thus increasing fish welfare  Oivind Bergh  The dual myths of the healthy wild fish and the unhealthy wild fish  2007
 Different strains of ISA virus have different variations in their ability to infect fish. Coho salmon were resistant to all variations and can carry the virus without showing signs of disease.  Frederick S.B. Kibenge, Molly J.T. Kibenge, Dave Groman, Sandi McGeachy  In vivo correlates of infectious salmon anemia virus pathogenesis in fish  2006
 Pacific salmon species were deliberately infected with ISA virus; all appeared resistant and showed no signs of disease. In contrast, the Atlantic salmon in the trial which were also infected nearly all died.  J.B. Rolland and J.R. Winton  Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus  2003
 Overview of the IHN outbreak which seriously affected salmon farms in B.C. in 2001-2003  Sonja Saksida  Investigation of the 2001-2003 IHN epizootic in farmed Atlantic salmon in British Columbia  2003
 Overview of viruses in Pacific ocean and how they are transmitted, particularly IHN  Evi Emmenegger, Ryan Troyer, Kyle Garver, Eric Anderson, Gael Kurath  Viral diseases as a possible cause of salmon mortality in the North Pacific ocean  2002
 Based on their mutation rates, the European and eastern Canadian strains of the Infectious Salmon Anemia likely diverged from a common ancestor around 1900, when salmonids were transferred between Europe and North America, in both directions.  B. Krossoy, F. Nilsen, K. Falk, C. Endresen, A. Nylund  Phylogenetic analysis of infectious salmon anaemia virus isolates from Norway, Canada and Scotland  2001
 Causal factors of marine anemia are widespread in the ocean, and diagnosis of the disease on a farm does not mean there will be an epidemic  Craig Stephen, Carl S. Ribble, Michael L. Kent  Descriptive epidemiology of marine anemia in seapen-reared salmon in southern British Columbia  1996
 Overview of marine anemia outbreaks and review of data shows that marine anemia is not new, and appears naturally in wild fish, only being noticed recently because of the effects on farmed salmon  Robert Craig Stephen  A field investigation of marine anemia in farmed salmon in British Columbia  1995
 A study of wild-caught chinook shows that salmon leukemia virus occurs naturally, at least at a low level, in wild chinook salmon  W.D. Eaton, B. Folkins, M.L. Kent  Biochemical and histological evidence of plasmacytoid leukemia and salmon leukemia virus (SLV) in wild-caught chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from British Columbia expressing plasmacytoid leukemia  1994
 Infected tissue from farmed chinook salmon injected into other salmon, including Atlantic, which developed symptoms of disease, generally mild G.C. Newbound, M.L. Kent  Experimental interspecies transmission of plasmacytoid leukemia in salmonid fishes  1991
 Infected tissue from farmed chinook injected into other salmon, which manifested disease after 10 weeks  Michael L. Kent and Shelia C. Dawe  Experimental transmission of a plasmacytoid leukemia of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  1990
 Overview of marine anemia outbreak in farmed chinook near Sechelt in 1988. Includes observation that identical disease was observed in Washington State in 1974.  Michael L. Kent  Aquaculture Update: Marine Anemia in pen-reared salmon  1989

Escapes

Summary Author Paper Date
 Survival of escaped salmon is low; many have difficulty switching from eating pellets to eating live prey; escaped salmon in this study either hung around the pens to eat or starved to death  R. E. Olsen, O.T. Skilbrei  Feeding preference of recaptured Atlantic salmon Salmo salar following simulated escape from fish pens during autumn  2010
 Farmed Atlantic salmon with sonic tags were deliberately released to study their movement patterns. Mortality was high shortly after release (seal predation) and the rest dispersed along dominant tidal currents. No tagged fish were detected in the 2004 or 2005 spawning seasons  Frederick G. Whoriskey, Paul Brooking, Gino Doucette, Stephen Tinker, and Jonathan W. Carr  Movements and survival of sonically tagged farmed Atlantic salmon released in Cobscook Bay, Maine, USA  2006
 There is little or no risk that Atlantic salmon farms in Puget Sound will negatively affect that region’s wild fish populations through escapes or other vectors  Waknitz, F.W., T.J. Tynan, C.E. Nash, R.N. Iwamoto, and L.G. Rutter  Review of Potential Impacts of Atlantic Salmon Culture on Puget Sound Chinook Salmon and Hood Canal Summer-Run Chum Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Units  2002
 Escaped Atlantic salmon from farms in B.C. do not pose a threat to wild Pacific salmon, and are highly unlikely to be able to colonize B.C. waterways  R.M.J. Ginetz  On the risk of colonization by Atlantic salmon in B.C. waters  2002
 There is little or no risk that escaped farmed salmon pose any threat to wild salmon  C.E. Nash (editor)  The Net-pen salmon farming industry in the Pacific Northwest  2001

Feed

Summary Author Paper Date
 Guidelines on how to use wild fish in aquaculture feed in a sustainable manner  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations  FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries Supplement 5: Use of wild fish as feed in aquaculture  2011
 Calculations of Feed Conversion Ratios for different kinds of livestock  Bert Tolkamp, Eileen Wall, Rainer Roehe, Jamie Newbold, Kostas Zaralis  Review of nutrient efficiency in different breeds of farm livestock  2010
 With the right diet, farmed salmon can actually be a net producer of fish meal and fish oil, creating more than was used in the fish feed  V.O. Crampton, D.A. Nanton, K. Ruohonen, P.-O. Skjervold, A. El-Mowafi  Demonstration of salmon farming as a net producer of fish protein and oil  2010
 Graph showing how the world production of fish meal has gradually declined since 2002  IFFO, FAO, OilWorld  Fishmeal world production  2010
 How to properly calculate fish-in fish-out ratios to determine usage of fishmeal and oil  IFFO  Fish-in Fish-out ratios explained  2009

Human Health

Summary Author Paper Date
Farmed salmon raised on a diet high in soybean oils and low in fish oils increase insulin resistance in mice Lisa Kolden Midtbø, Mohammad Madani Ibrahim, Lene Secher Myrmel, Ulrike Liisberg Aune, Anita Røyneberg Alvheim, Nina S. Liland, Bente E. Torstensen, Grethe Rosenlund, Bjørn Liaset, Trond Brattelid, Karsten Kristiansen, Lise Madsen Intake of Farmed Atlantic Salmon Fed Soybean Oil
Increases Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice
2013
 Farmed fish generally are a better source of Omega-3s than wild fish  M.A. Hossain  Fish as Source of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), Which One is Better-Farmed or Wild? 2011
 EPA Fact Sheet about PCBs  US Environmental Protection Agency  EPA Fact Sheet  2011
Study of mice fed different high-fat diets, some including farmed salmon and some not, concludes that including farmed salmon makes mice more likely to develop insulin resistance and obesity Mohammad Madani Ibrahim, Even Fjære, Erik-Jan Lock, Danielle Naville, Heidi Amlund, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Brigitte Le Magueresse Battistoni, Livar Frøyland, Lise Madsen, Niels Jessen, Sten Lund, Hubert Vidal, Jérôme Ruzzin Chronic Consumption of Farmed Salmon Containing Persistent Organic Pollutants Causes Insulin Resistance and Obesity in Mice 2011
 The benefits of regular fish consumption of all species of oily fish, including farmed and wild salmon, outweigh the risks  World Health Organization  Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption  2010
 Fact sheet from University of California Davis about how farmed and wild salmon are both healthy to eat  Pamela D. Tom, Paul G. Olin  Farmed or Wild? Both Types of Salmon Taste Good and are Good For You  2010
 PCBs are higher in southern stock wild chinook, which has implications for the killer whales which feed on them  Donna L. Cullon, Mark B. Yunker, Carl Alleyne, Neh. J. Dangerfield, Sandra O’Neill, Michael J. Whiticar, Peter S. Ross  Persistent organic pollutants in chinook salmon (onorhynchus tshawytscha): Implications for resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters  2009
 Chinook salmon in Puget Sound have a much higher concentration of PCBs than other stocks of wild chinook salmon  Sandra M. O’Neill, James E. West  Marine Distribution, Life History Traits, and the Accumulation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Chinook Salmon from Puget Sound, Washington  2009
 An overview of farmed fish consumed in Europe. While salmon has higher contaminant levels than other species, levels are still low and within safe consumption guidelines  S.P.J. Van Leeuwen, M.J.M. Van Velzen, C.P. Swart, I. Van Der Veen, W.A. Traag, J. De Boer  Halogenated Contaminants in Farmed Salmon, Trout, Tilapia, Pangasius, and Shrimp  2009
 Extensive table comparing the nutritional value of wild and farmed seafood and other common protein sources  Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada  Nutritional Value of Selected Types of Seafood and Other Animal Foods 2008
 An overview of the risks and benefits for pregnant and nursing mothers from eating fish. Benefits far outweigh risks, and farmed and wild salmon are both a “Best Choice” in the study’s accompanying wallet card.  Charles R. Santerre  Balancing the risks and benefits of fish for sensitive populations 2008
 A case study in how food scares, including the Hites 2004 PCB study and surrounding media, misinformed the public and decreased overall consumption of all salmon  Megan Nickoloff, Leigh Maynard, Sayed Saghaian, and Michael Reed  The Effect of Conflicting Health Information on Frozen Salmon Consumption in Alberta, Canada 2008
 Regular consumption of oily fish is a good way for healthy adults to significantly reduce their risk of getting heart disease. Farmed salmon has the greatest amount of Omega-3s in a three-ounce portion compared to other fish found in the grocery store  William S. Harris, PhD, Penny M. Kris-Etherton, PhD, RD, and Kristina A. Harris, BA  Intakes of Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Associated with Reduced Risk for Death from Coronary Heart Disease in Healthy Adults 2008
 Farmed and wild salmon from B.C. are a safe source of Omega-3s to reduce the risk of heart disease  Barry C. Kelly, Michael G. Ikonomou, David A. Higgs, Janice Oakes, Cury Dubetz  Mercury and other trace elements in farmed and wild salmon from British Columbia, Canada 2008
 The PCBs in salmon food scare prompted by the Hites 2004 PCB study prompted a significant drop in frozen salmon purchases. Wild salmon sellers capitalized by launching new low-priced wild salmon products and were able to use the scare as an opportunity for growth.  Leigh Maynard, Sayed Saghaian, Megan Nickoloff  Buyer and Seller Responses to an Adverse Food Safety Event: The Case of Frozen Salmon in Alberta 2008
 The benefits of eating fish are worth considering the risks. Farmed and wild fish have similar levels of contaminants.  Lucio G. Costa  Contaminants in fish: Risk-Benefit Considerations 2007
 PCBs in farmed B.C. fish are somewhat higher than wild fish; however, contaminant levels are still far below Health Canada and FDA guidelines and farmed salmon is safe to eat at least once per week.  M.G. Ikonomou, D.A. Higgs, M. Gibbs, J. Oakes, B. Skura, S. McKinley, S.K. Balfrey, S. Jones, R. Withler, C. Dubetz  Flesh Quality of market-size Farmed and Wild British Columbia Salmon 2007
 An overview of all existing studies on contaminants in fish. The benefits of regularly consuming fish exceed the risks, including for women of childbearing age.  Dariush Mozaffarian, Eric B. Rimm  Fish Intake, Contaminants and Human Health: Evaluating the Risks and the Benefits 2006
 PCB levels in farmed salmon are higher than in wild salmon from Alaska, even with the skin removed. However, with the skin removed, PCB levels in all are very low  Susan D. Shaw, Diane Brenner, Michelle L. Berger, David O. Carpenter, Chia-Swee Hong, Kurunthachalam Kannan  PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and organochlorine pesticides in farmed Atlantic salmon from Maine, Eastern Canada, and Norway, and Wild salmon from Alaska 2006
 While farmed fish may have more contaminants than wild fish, they are present in such small amounts that regular consumption would not cause tolerable daily intakes to be exceeded.  E. Dewailly, P. Ayotte, M. Lucas, C. Blanchet  Risk and benefits from consuming salmon and trout: A Canadian perspective 2006
 Consumption of farmed salmon at relatively low frequencies results in elevated exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Safe limit analysis based on WHO and EPA suggested limits from 2000  Jeffery A. Foran, David O. Carpenter, M. Coreen Hamilton, Barbara A. Knuth, Steven J. Schwager  Risk-based consumption advice for farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon contaminated with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds 2005
 Contaminants in farmed salmon are higher than in wild salmon and analysis indicates consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon may pose health risks that detract from the beneficial effects of fish consumption  Ronald A. Hites, Jeffery A. Foran, David O. Carpenter, M. Coreen Hamilton, Barbara A. Knuth, Steven J. Schwager  Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon 2004
 Consumers are more aware of the small risks associated with fish consumption (e.g. PCBs) than they are of the significant benefits (e.g. Omega-3s) and need to have the risks versus benefits properly explained  Wim Verbeke, Isabelle Sioen, Zuzanna Pienak, John Van Camp, Stefaan De Henauw  Consumer perception versus scientific evidence about health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption 2004
 Environmental Working Group study of farmed salmon concludes that “American consumers nationwide are exposed to elevated PCB levels by eating farmed salmon.” Uses EPA guideline of 6,000 parts per trillion daily consumption limit of PCBs which the EPA no longer references.  Environmental Working Group  PCBs in farmed salmon 2003
 PCBs and dioxins in farmed fish flesh likely come from the fish oil used in fish feed. Reducing fish oil content and increasing vegetable oils rich in Omega-3s can reduce PCBs and dioxins in farmed fish flesh  Miriam N. Jacobs, Adrian Covaci, Paul Schepens  Investigation of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), Salmon Aquaculture Feed, and Fish Oil Components of the Feed 2002

Life Cycle Analysis and Environmental Comparisons

Summary Author Paper Date
 The environmental impact of salmon, tilapia and pangasius farming is about the same as the environmental impact of North Sea plaice and cod fisheries  S.W.K. van den Burg, C. Taal, I.J.M. de Boer, T. Bakker, T.C. Viets  Environmental performance of wild-caught North Sea whitefish: A comparison with aquaculture and animal husbandry using Life Cycle Analysis  2012
 Global-scale life cycle assessment of salmon farming, comparing different regions and identifying areas where environmental impact can be reduced  Nathan Pelletier, Peter Tyedmers, Ulf Sonesson, Astrid Scholz, Friederike Ziegler, Anna Flysio, Sarah Kruse, Beatriz Cancino, Howard Silverman  Not all salmon are created equal: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Global salmon farming systems  2009
 Alternative salmon farming methods, particularly land-based recirculating systems, would have greater environmental impacts in terms of land use, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions than ocean net pens.  Nathan W. Ayer, Peter H. Tyedmers  Assessing alternative aquaculture technologies: life cycle assessment of salmonid culture systems in Canada  2008
 An overview of aquaculture practices which stress fish, and how they can be somewhat alleviated by good practice  Peter Stevenson (Compassion in World Farming)  Closed waters: the welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, Atlantic cod and Atlantic halibut  2007
 Salmon farming uses less space, has less environmental impact and is more efficient than other forms of protein production (e.g. beef)  Kenneth M. Brooks  A comparison of some environmental costs associated with netpen culture of fish with some other forms of food production  2007
 Study of the impact of all human activities on the ocean environment in B.C.  Natalie Ban, Jackie Alder  How wild is the ocean? Assessing the intensity of anthropogenic marine activities in British Columbia, Canada  2007
 Salmon farming and cod fishing have about the same environmental impact; chicken farming is most energy-efficient  Harald Ellingsen and Svein Aanond Aanondsen  Environmental impacts of wild-caught cod and farmed salmon – a comparison with chicken ABSTRACT ONLY  2006

Sea lice

Summary Author Paper Date
 Study provides a mathematical method for estimating how many salmon farms can be in a region before they reach a “critical threshold” and start causing problems for wild fish  L. Neil Frazer, Alexandra Morton and Martin Krkosek  Critical thresholds in sea lice epidemics: evidence, sensitivity and subcritical estimation  2012
 Investigation into where sea lice which infected farms during winter may have came from (sea lice are usually understood to come back into B.C. waters with returning salmon stocks)  R. Beamish, E. Gordon, J. Wade, B. Pennel, C. Neville, K. Lange, R. Sweeting, S. Jones  The winter infection of sea lice on salmon in farms in a coastal inlet in British Columbia and possible causes  2011
 While salmon farms may increase sea lice in a region, there is no statistical difference when comparing the survival of outmigrating juvenile pink salmon which passed farms and those which did not pass farms.  Alexandra Morton, Rick Routledge, Amy McConnell, Martin Krkosek  Sea lice dispersion and salmon survival in relation to salmon farm activity in the Broughton Archipelago  2011
 According to mathematical predictions, if sea lice on salmon farms are managed to a constant abundance, the abundance of wild salmon runs can increase. If lice are controlled only according to their abundance, wild stock abundance can decrease.  Jaime Ashander, Martin Krkosek, Mark A. Lewis  Aquaculture-induced changes to dynamics of a migratory host and specialist parasite: a case study of pink salmon and sea lice  2011
 SLICE continues to be an effective treatment against sea lice in B.C. despite its loss of potency in some other salmon farming regions  S.M. Saksida, D.M. Morrison. C.W. Revie  The efficacy of emamectin benzoate against infestations of sea lice, Lepephtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in British Columbia  2010
 Productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production  Gary D. Marty, Sonja M. Saksida, Terrance J. Quinn  Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice and wild salmon populations  2010
 Mathematical modeling shows that lice from salmon farms, and salinity, appear to be correlated with increased lice infestations on wild salmon  M.H.H. Price, A. Morton, J.D. Reynolds  Evidence of farm-induced parasite infestations on wild juvenile salmon in multiple regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada  2010
 A mathematical model suggests the numbers of lice within a salmon farm grow exponentially  Martin Krkosek, Andrew Bateman, Stan Proboszcz, Craig Orr  Dynamics of outbreak and control of salmon lice on two salmon farms in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia  2010
 Comprehensive overview of the issues and state of knowledge regarding sea lice, aquaculture and potential impacts on wild salmon  Crawford Revie, Larry Dill, Bengt Finstad, Christopher Todd  Sea Lice Working Group Report: Report from the Technical Working Group on Sea Lice (a sub-group of the Working Group on Salmon Disease) of the Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue  2009
 High levels of sea lice were found on all species of juvenile Pacific salmon as well as juvenile herring in the Gulf Islands area, far from any salmon farms  R. Beamish, J. Wade, W. Pennell, E. Gordon, S. Jones, C. Neville, K. Lange, R. Sweeting  A large, natural infection of sea lice on juvenile Pacific salmon in the Gulf Islands area of British Columbia, Canada  2009
 Analysis suggests that sea lice infestations had little impact on mortality rate of juvenile pink salmon in certain years studied  Simon R.M. Jones, N. Brent Hargreaves  Infection threshold to estimate Lepeophtheirus salmonis-associated mortality among juvenile pink salmon  2009
 Regular sampling in Clayoquot Sound shows a natural prevalence of sea lice on chum salmon between seven and 10 per cent  The Clayoquot Sound Sea Lice Working Group  Prevalence and density of sea louse (L. salmonis and C. clemensi) infections in juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhychus keta) in Clayoquot Sound 2004-2007  2009
 A 2007 study by Krkosek et al predicted sea lice in the Broughton Archipelago would cause the extinction of pink salmon in the region by 2010. However, a different analysis shows the evidence fails to support that hypothesis  Kenneth M. Brooks and Simon R.M. Jones  Perspectives on Pink Salmon and Sea Lice: Scientific Evidence Fails to Support the Extinction Hypothesis  2008
 Krkosek et al respond to criticism of an earlier study  Martin Krkosek, Jennifer S. Ford, Alexandra Morton, Subhash Lele, Mark A. Lewis  Response to comment on “Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon  2008
 Criticism of Krkosek et al’s earlier study. Critics point out the data was used selectively and conclusions do not match with recent observations of returning salmon  Brian E. Riddell, Richard J. Beamish, Laura J. Richards, John R. Candy  Comment on “Declining wild salmon in relation to parasites from farm salmon”  2008
 Juvenile salmon infected with sea lice tend to prefer freshwater, jump more and forage less  Sandra J. Webster, Lawrence M. Dill, Kevin Butterworth  The effect of sea lice infestation on the salinity preference and energetic expenditure of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhyncus gorbuscha)  2007
 A study of three-spine sticklebacks shows they can host both main species of sea lice in large numbers  Simon R.M. Jones, Gina Prosperi-Porta, Elish Kim, Paul Callow, N. Brent Hargreaves  The occurrence of lepeophtheirus salmonis and caligus clemensi  (copepoda: caligidae) on three-spine stickleback gasterosteus aculeatus in coastal British Columbia ABSTRACT ONLY  2006
 Criticism of an earlier study by Krkosek et al, pointing out flaws in the mathematical model  Kenneth M. Brooks and Dario J. Stucchi  The effects of water temperature, salinity and currents on the survival and distribution of the infective copepodid stage of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) originating on Atlantic salmon farms in the Broughton Archipelago of British Columbia, Canada (Brooks, 2005) — a response to the rebuttal of Krkosek et al (2005a)  2005
 Mathematical model suggesting that sea lice from salmon farms could negatively affect passing wild salmon  Martin Krkosek, Mark A. Lewis and John P. Volpe  Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon  2005
 Baseline study intended to establish natural sea lice levels on juvenile salmon  David Rolston, Bart Proctor  Salmon farms and sea lice: A baseline report on the incidence of sea lice on juvenile salmonids on British Columbia’s North Coast  2003

Technology

Summary Author Paper Date
 Closed containment systems offer possibilities of rearing Atlantic salmon under controlled conditions at high densities. They offer possibilities for optimising growth conditions for fish. However, comparatively high production cost of maintaining water quality may preclude competition with conventional cage rearing systems.  Helgi Thoraransen, Anthony P. Farrell  The biological requirements for post-smolt Atlantic salmon in closed-containment systems  2011
 Closed-containment systems on land could be viable but would require a lot of water and electricity  Andrew S. Wright, Nasim Arianpoo  Technologies for viable salmon aquaculture: An examination of land-based closed-containment aquaculture  2010
 Economic analysis of closed containment systems shows they are not economically feasible  David Boulet, Alistair Struthers, Eric Gilbert  Feasibility study of closed-containment options for the British Columbia aquaculture industry  2010
 Overview of the technologies and requirements of RAS systems  Nigel Timmons, Michael B. Timmons, James M. Ebeling  Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) Technologies  2006

Examining the science behind salmon farming

Fish Farming In Beautiful British Columbia

To teach the general public about salmon farms

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The world's most viewed site on global warming and climate change

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All the junk that’s fit to debunk.

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Protesting the not so peaceful protesters on Vancouver Island

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